Correlated quantum phenomena in one-dimensional (1D) systems that exhibit competing electronic and magnetic order are of strong interest for the study of fundamental interactions and excitations, such as Tomonaga–Luttinger liquids and topological orders and defects with properties completely different from the quasiparticles expected in their higher-dimensional counterparts. However, clean 1D electronic systems are difficult to realize experimentally, particularly for magnetically ordered systems. Here, we show that the van der Waals layered magnetic semiconductor CrSBr behaves like a quasi-1D material embedded in a magnetically ordered environment. The strong 1D electronic character originates from the Cr–S chains and the combination of weak interlayer hybridization and anisotropy in effective mass and dielectric screening, with an effective electron mass ratio of mXe/mYe ∼ 50. This extreme anisotropy experimentally manifests in strong electron–phonon and exciton–phonon interactions, a Peierls-like structural instability, and a Fano resonance from a van Hove singularity of similar strength to that of metallic carbon nanotubes. Moreover, because of the reduced dimensionality and interlayer coupling, CrSBr hosts spectrally narrow (1 meV) excitons of high binding energy and oscillator strength that inherit the 1D character. Overall, CrSBr is best understood as a stack of weakly hybridized monolayers and appears to be an experimentally attractive candidate for the study of exotic exciton and 1D-correlated many-body physics in the presence of magnetic order.